Category Archives: Articles

A Shocking Pawn Endgame

I found it shocking that Black can win this endgame but he does so with a very surprising breakthrough. The other thing is that when both sides promote, Black needs to be able to force the exchange of queens after which he’s closer to the queenside than White:

Sam Davies

American Chess Magazine

You might think, given the decline in traditional print media, it’s a strange time to launch a new magazine. Bridge Magazine, the stablemate of CHESS, went digital a few years ago, and The Problemist, the magazine of the British Chess Problem Society, will be heading in the same direction at the start of next year.

But chess in the USA is, at least superficially, booming. They have three players, Wesley So, Fabiano Caruana and Hikaru Nakamura, near the top of the world rankings, several up and coming young stars such as Jeffery Xiong, Sam Sevian and Awonder Liang, and, thanks to Rex Sinquefield’s generous sponsorship, a major new chess centre in St Louis.

It is this that no doubt inspired the Serbian team behind Chess Informant, who have also recently taken over the British Chess Magazine, to launch the American Chess Magazine late last year. Josip Asik is credited as the editor-in-chief. This is a quarterly magazine with 152 large format glossy pages, which will set you back by $29.95, or, if you buy a copy from Chess & Bridge in Baker Street, £24.99.

You might think that magazines, unlike books, are, by their nature, ephemeral, so you might think that the price is a bit steep. You’d expect a pretty good product for your money, and that is exactly what you get. A quick glance behind the tagline ‘It’s cool to be smart’ reveals outstanding production values if you don’t mind the rather ‘bitty’ layout. This seems to be the modern style, but I don’t very much care for it myself. Why, for instance, does page 4 in the first issue give me the contents of pages 68 onwards, with the contents of the earlier pages on page 5? Lots of colour photographs – in fact I could imagine the amount of colour in the whole magazine along with the busy-ness of the layout inducing sensory overload in some readers. A starry list of contributors: Ivanchuk, Sokolov, Jobava, Harikrishna, Speelman, Shankland, Gulko and Krush amongst others in the first issue, while the second issue also includes the likes of Dominguez, Ehlvest, Seirawan and Hou Yifan.

You’ll also get reports from top tournaments, including many heavily annotated games, along with articles of more general interest. There is, understandably, a bias towards US chess. Much of Issue 1 is about the 2016 Olympiad while Issue 2 features Wesley So. But should you buy it? Will it help you improve your chess?

First of all, it’s aimed very much at the stronger player, say 1800 Elo/150 ECF and above. If you’re a lower rated player you might want to buy it out of interest, and you’ll probably enjoy reading it, but it probably won’t help you improve very much. The games are all a few months old so, if you’re an avid follower of grandmaster chess you’ll have seen many of them before. You might even have forgotten them as another couple of super GM tournaments will have taken place before you see them. If you subscribe to New in Chess you will also already have some of the games in print, and it’s that magazine which would seem to be the newcomer’s main rival.

It’s rather amusing to note that the report on Gibraltar in Issue 2 was written by Hou Yifan. Well, it’s not really a report, just one deeply annotated game (Nakamura-Lagarde). She makes no mention of her ill-judged (or ill-advised) last round protest, but an editorial box explains that she is well-known for her sporting conduct, and that her act ‘made a powerful impact on the chess public and provoked intense discussion about whether or not there is evidence of fixing pairings in chess’. No mention of the fact that the pairings were checked and reproduced by a number of impartial experts on pairing systems.

So if you’re looking for controversy or the latest news on chess politics this probably isn’t for you. Instead you get a relentlessly upbeat, positive view of chess, along with much adulation of Wesley So and other top US players.

If you’re American, especially if you’re rated, say, 1800+, you’ll certainly want to subscribe. If not, you might wonder how much value you’d be getting for your money. On the other hand, you may well think that you have a responsibility, as an inhabitant of Planet Chess, to support this excellent publication and help it succeed. There have been other excellent chess magazines over the years which have perhaps aimed too high and have folded after 2 or 3 issues.

It will be interesting to see what effect, if any, this brash new kid on the block will have on the world of chess magazine publishing. Will we see major changes to its illustrious, if ageing, stablemate the British Chess Magazine? Will it have an effect on its market rival, New in Chess? You’ll find out here first.

Richard James

The Importance of Tactics Nine: Putting It All Together

Over the last eight articles, we’ve explored basic tactical ideas and have seen how important a role tactics play in the game of chess. Of course, great chess playing requires more than simply being good at tactics. Master level players will incorporate and employ tactics in their overall plan but know that tactics alone don’t solely win games. They know that many other elements contribute to whether or not they win or lose. However, tactics are often the decisive winning element in the games of beginning and intermediate players. Today we’re going to look at a single game in which one player, Boris Spassky, employs tactics impressively. First, we’ll break the game down into two key positions, isolating a two specific examples and looking at the series of moves leading up to each tactical play. Then we’ll see the entire game played out in my game of the week. By looking at some specific tactical examples within the game and then playing through the game in it’s entirety we’ll better understand when and where we should use our new found tactical tools.

We talked about the power of the pin early in this series of articles. Of course, beginners often stumble into an opportunity to employ a pin due to their opponent’s poor handling of his forces on the chessboard. However, at a master level of play, even a simple tactic such as a pin can require a great deal of positional work to set that tactic up. In our first example, we’ll look at the series of moves that led up to the first pin. Boris Spassky, commanding the White pieces (Avtonomov playing Black), demonstrates why he is such a fantastic chess player (he’s also my favorite chess player of all time so pardon my bias). Note that there are more complex and deeper reasons for some of the moves made in this game then I’ll be mentioning. However, this article is written for the beginner so we’re sticking with basic principled tactical reasoning here. Let’s jump right into the action:

Studious beginners and Grandmasters alike know that castling your King to safety is critical. An unsafe King becomes a target for your opponent’s pawns and pieces and an overwhelming number of games have been lost throughout chess’s long history (at all level of play) due to not castling the King. Therefore, Spassky castles his King with 1. O-O. However, there’s more to this move than simply sheltering your King from the opposition’s forces. Activating your King-side Rook (or Queen-side Rook when castling Queen-side) is an added bonus to castling. Beginners have a bad habit of leaving their Rooks dormant throughout the game. Rooks can play a crucial roll during all phases of the game as we shall soon see. Black responds by playing 1…a6. This move prevents Spassky from checking the Black King with his c4 Bishop which might lead to a trade of light squared Bishops (don’t give your opponent an opportunities to check your King, especially when it may lead to an exchange of pieces (such as your light squared Bishop) that include a piece you might need later on. Spassky now plays 2. Qe2. Why play such a move? We’ll find out momentarily. Black plays 2…b5, pushing the Bishop off of the c4 square. One thing you’ll want consider, whenever reasonable and possible, is to push your opponent’s pieces back, away from your King, while moving your pieces forward towards your opponent’s King. Now, the White Bishop simply move to b3 with 3. Bb3.

Master level players make a point of building up their pawn and piece’s activity, methodically moving their forces to specific squares and only then, launching their attack, whereas beginners tend to launch premature attacks which contributes to their losing games. Black plays 3…Nc6, putting pressure on both d4 and e5. Spassky responds with 4. Nc3, bringing his Queen-side Knight into the game and putting pressure on the d5 square. After Black plays 4…cxd4, it looks like Spassky has to either move his Knight on c3 or capture the attacking pawn with exd4. Absolutely not! Spassky plays the wonderful 5. Rd1 and now the d4 pawn is pinned to the Queen. This is the difference between top level players and beginners. The beginner would panic and either move the Knight or capture the pawn. However, Spassky set up a potential pin a few moves back. Remember when he castled and then moved his Queen up a rank? This combination of moves allowed the Rook to move from f1 to d1 where it now pins the Black pawn on d4 to the Black Queen on d8. A nice piece of tactical work by a great tactical artist of the chessboard! Take a look at the next example from our game:

The only different between the first example and this example is that black has moved his light squared Bishop to the long diagonal running from a8 to h1. Take a good look at this position. See if you can spot any potential future pins for White. Really take a look at the position before reading further and write down any moves that could create a pin. The first move that Spassky makes is going to capture the d4 pawn. How would you recapture it, with 1. Nxd4 or exd4? Think in terms of creating a pin! Remember, my friends who are beginners, when given the choice of capturing with a variety of pawns and pieces, we should (unless the position warrants otherwise) capture back with the unit of least value. Therefore, 1. exd4 is the correct move. It’s a better choice than 1. Nxd4 because capturing back with the pawn creates an absolute pin along the e file. Notice that, after the e pawn captures the d4 pawn, the White Queen on e2 is pinning Black’s e6 pawn to the Black King on e8. While the Black e6 pawn is dormant, it’s future use will be limited as long as it’s pinned. Absolute pins can be lethal since the pinned piece cannot be moved. Spassky, of course, plays 1. exd4.

It looks like White’s pawn on d4 is heading towards d5 which is why Black plays 1…Nb4 which does two important things. First, the Black Knight on b4 is attacking the d5 square. This adds another defender to that square (d5). Remember, as long as the Black e6 pawn is pinned, it cannot aid in the defense of d5. Second, it allows the Black Bishop on b7 to also aid in the attack on d5 now that the Black Knight has moved off of c6. Good chess players know how to make moves that don’t block in their pieces. Spassky now plays 2. d5, pushing the pawn forward. While Black would love to capture the White pawn on d5 with his e6 pawn, he can’t because that pawn is absolutely pinned to the Black King. Now we’re seeing the power of pins when employed by a highly skilled Player. Black captures back with 2…Nbxd5. Unfortunately, the black Knight on d5 is now pinned to the Black Queen on d8, thanks to the Rook on d1. White now has two pins going, both involving Black’s most important pieces, the King and Queen. One pin is bad enough, but two? Now Spassky plays 3.Bg5 and an additional pin is added to the mix, the White Bishop on g5 pinning the Black Knight on f6 to the Black Queen on d8! Any casual player would simply tip his King in resignation and go home to tend to his greatly bruised ego. However, Black makes what I consider to be an important move that the beginner should take note of! Black plays 3…Be7! Put yourself in Black’s shoes. You have to deal with three separate pins and since you can only move one piece at a time, you’re facing possibly least three move to break each of the various pins. Take a moment to note each pin before reading on. There’s an absolute pin and two relative pins. Which do you deal with first? The absolute pin comes to mind. However, what if you could stop two of the pins in a single move. Black does so by playing 3. Be7. Bravo! This simple move temporarily stops both the pin involving the Black Knight on f6 and Black Queen on d8 (being pinned by the White Bishop on g5) as well as the pin involving the Black e6 pawn and the Black King on e8 (being pinned by the White Queen on e2). The placement of the Black Bishop on e7 relieves some of the pressure Black is feeling in this position. Moves that do move than one thing are excellent moves to make! However, the Black Bishop on e7 may be feeling a bit overloaded at the moment!

Before I let you loose to play through the game in it’s entirety. We should discuss a few key points regarding tactics employed in the above examples. Notice that not much, in the way of material has been captured. Top level players know that successful attacks require that the attacker build up his position. Also, the more pieces you have in play, the greater the opportunity for tactics. In military terms, this means getting all your troops onto the battlefield, carefully positioning each member of your army where it will do the maximum amount of damage when the fighting starts and be able to exploit an opportunities! You should also note that you have to set tactics up. In the first example, Spassky castled his King to activate the Rook followed by moving his Queen up one rank so the Rook could move from f1 to d1. It’s important to note that Spassky waited until the right moment to bring his Rook over to d1. Timing is extremely important when employing tactics. You have to wait until the right moment to unleash the tactical beast. Here’s the game from start to finish. You’ll find a great example of removing the defender on move 19. Enjoy!

Hugh Patterson

Using Checkmate Training to Improve Your Chess

I think sometimes people underestimate the value of studying and training checkmate patterns. Like other patterns, such as pawn structures, basic tactics, or opening moves, checkmate patterns have many benefits.

Here are some of the benefits of studying and practicing checkmates.

  • Being able to spot checkmate patterns frees your mind from the burden of having to calculate it “from scratch” – leaving you with more mental energy and more time in a tournament game.
  • Many checkmates contain tactical themes such as discoveries, pins, and removal of the guard. Practicing checkmate problems will strengthen those tactical patterns as well.
  • When you practice mates that involve more than one move such as mates-in-two or mates-in-three you develop your calculation and visualization skill. In some ways, this is advantageous because you aren’t spending your resources evaluating resulting positions, so you can isolate the calculation and visualization aspect.

My advocation of this type of practice stems from playing in a big tournament – the New York State Championship Under 1600 section – twenty years ago. I did all of the usual stuff – opening practice, tactics, endgame study. However, I also did 10 checkmate problems daily. Although I can’t attribute my victory solely to checkmate practice – I scored 4.5/5 for first place, I do believe that the training sharpened my tactical eye as well as gave me confidence.

Here is some advice to include checkmate practice into your training regimen:

  • Get a copy of Renaud and Kahn’s The Art of Checkmate. Study it and do the exercises. This will provide you with all of the patterns you will ever need.
  • Then get Polgar’s massive Chess: 5334 Problems, Combinations, and Games and go through the checkmate problems therein. This will help reinforce those patterns.
  • You don’t have to dedicate a ton of time to it. After you have absorbed all of the patterns, then occasional reinforcement will maintain this skill and knowledge for you. For example, I do checkmate problems once every couple weeks. However, I do encounter checkmate solutions in my daily tactics training.

I know there are a lot of aspects of chess to study, including openings, middlegame, and the endgame, along with tactics and strategy. Checkmates may seem like an insignificant addition to an already crowded training program. However, if you’ve never taken the time to build up your library of checkmate patterns, you will benefit greatly by doing so.

Here is a video I created with six common checkmate patterns – think of this as an appetizer!

Bryan Castro

Another Indian Chess Star : Nihal Sarin

Photo by Asarinus

Let me introduce a new Indian chess star. Nihal Sarin, now an International Master, was born in 2004 and started to play chess once a week in school. He became World U10 champion in 2010 and at recent tournament, the Fagernes International 2017, he scored his first GM norm. He scored 6/9, beating GM Evgeny Postny and was undefeated.

The main reason behind chess becoming so popular in India is Viswanathan Anand whether he is World Champion or not it doesn’t make any difference to us. He is our hero. And of course it helps that the Indian government has taken steps to make chess and other sports popular by providing financial benefits and career opportunities.

Here is Sarin’s game against Postny for you to enjoy!

Ashvin Chauhan

An Interesting Pawn Endgame

Here’s a pawn endgame that I found very interesting. At first it looks as if it should be winning for Black but he doesn’t have a reserve move to get the opposition and his surviving b-pawn will not be on the 5th rank.

Sam Davies

Notation

Two articles about education caught my eye recently. The first one concerned science education, and asked at what age children could be taught Scientific Method. You can read it here. Most young children enjoy science at school, particularly if it involves experiments producing bangs or smells. At one level science is about understanding how the natural world works, but in order to become a scientist rather than just learning about science you have to learn how to conduct experiments, which means understanding Scientific Method.

There’s a connection with chess here in that Scientific Method is one of many thinking skills you’ll use if you’re a proper chess player. If you’re solving a puzzle with a specific aim, such as Mate in 2, you will create a hypothesis, that a particular move is the answer, test it by checking all possible replies, and either accept or reject your hypothesis. If you reject the hypothesis you must formulate an alternative hypothesis. (Returning for a moment to the Chess Heroes project, this is explained in Checkmates for Heroes.)

It’s an interesting subject and the author of the article doesn’t claim to have an answer.

Similar discussions have taken place over the years concerning history teaching. Should you just tell children about history or should you teach them how to become a historian: how to assess primary and secondary sources. When I was at school you just learnt about history, but, looking at secondary school history books (there are lots of them in the classrooms where Richmond Junior Club meets), I see that there’s an emphasis on evaluation of sources.

Should you spend time teaching young (perhaps pre-school) children, how to become a scientist or a historian, or just about science and history. I don’t know for certain, but, given the amount of fake news and bad science available on the Internet, I rather suspect you should.

A few days earlier, the normally sedate world of classical music was thrown into turmoil by an article by Charlotte C Gill, protesting that music was taught in an over academic way, with too much emphasis on notation. “This is a cryptic, tricky language – rather like Latin – that can only be read by a small number of people, most of whom have benefited from private education.”

The pianist and blogger Ian Pace, incidentally a specialist in avant-garde music, sent off a reply which has, at the time of writing, attracted over 700 signatories. Among many other responses was a blog post from Frances Wilson, a pianist and teacher from my part of the world.

Although I’m a music lover, not a musician, there’s a lot I could say, particularly about the assumption that learning notation, or placing ‘classical’ (serious, art or whatever you want to call it) music above pop, rap, house or grime, is in some way elitist. You may well think that the elite will always exist, so promoting anti-elitist education policies will only make it harder for others to join the elite. But for now I’ll return to chess.

In chess, just as in music, we have notation, although its function is rather different. Music notation tells us what to play whereas chess notation is a way of recording what we have played. But understanding and being fluent and confident with notation also introduces us to the world of chess literature, enabling us to understand, appreciate and learn from the games that others have played. If you want to be either a ‘serious’ chess player or a ‘serious’ musician, however, notation is essential. Chess notation is much easier than music notation, so can be taught younger, although many children will find it hard or ‘boring’. Within the restricted confines of a primary school chess club you’re probably not going to have very much time to go into any detail or expect children to record their own games, but if you run an ‘elitist’ chess club, which you might prefer to describe as a ‘centre of excellence’ you most certainly will insist that all children learn to record their games.

Coming back to the discussion of the difference between being a scientist and knowing about science, or between being a historian and knowing about history, we might want to make a similar difference between being a chess player and knowing about chess.

The children who tell you they enjoy science at school probably just enjoy the experiments: they might think they’re scientists but unless they’re applying scientific principles to their work, they’re not really scientists at all.

Likewise the children who go to their school chess club once a week and enjoy playing chess might think they’re chess players, but unless they’re applying the appropriate cognitive skills rather than just playing more or less random moves, they’re not really chess players at all.

The scientists, historians and musicians are having interesting discussions about what actually makes you a scientist, historian or musician. Perhaps we, as chess players, should be having the same discussion. At one level it’s good to introduce young children to science, history, music or chess in a fun, unchallenging, inclusive way. Beyond that, we have to get the message across to schools, parents and children, that playing random moves is not really playing chess. Yes, there is a chess elite comprising serious competitive players, and everyone, regardless of their background, should have the opportunity to become a real chess player.

Richard James

The Importance of Tactics Eight: Removing the Defender

Often, a beginner will see checkmate close at hand except for one small problem, there’s an opposition pawn or piece standing between the beginner and victory. “If only that pawn or piece wasn’t on that square”, muses our intrepid beginning player. “I’d win this game if my opponent would just move that darn pawn (or piece)!” His opponent also sees it as the one member of his army stopping checkmate, so he’s not going to move that pawn or piece unless he’s forced to. What is our poor beginner to do? After all, if that opposition pawn or piece isn’t going to move then how’s he going to win?

The beginner facing this dilemma, refers back to his limited chess training and thinks “maybe I can somehow trade a piece of lesser or equal value for the piece standing in the way of my mating plan, but I’ll have to move that piece of lesser or equal value into position to do so.” Of course, following this plan means spending extra time to do so and extra time might give the opposition an opportunity to stop the attempted checkmate! While experienced players might laugh at this notion of only trading pieces of lesser or equal value to clear a path to checkmate, all the beginner has to go on, regarding the exchange of material, is what they’ve learned so far in their chess education, namely that you should always try to exchange material in a manner that is profitable for you or at least equal. In other words, trade or exchange material of lesser value for pieces of higher value or trade material of equal value for material of equal value.

The beginner, thinking in these terms is thinking mechanically which is part of the learning process. When a beginner starts playing chess, they tend to make terrible trades, such as giving up a Rook or Queen for a minor piece (with no great positional gain or compensation for their loss) because they don’t understand the relative value of the pieces. Chess teachers and coaches, such as myself, spend countless hours teaching our beginning students the value of the pieces and how to make profitable exchanges. Thus, when the beginner is faced with a position in which an opposition pawn or minor piece is standing in the way of their mating attack, they don’t consider the idea of trading a piece of greater value for one of lesser value, even if it allows checkmate to occur (remember, beginners haven’t developed their pattern recognition skills and often don’t see a potential checkmate).

We call this tactical idea removing the defender. The defender is any pawn or piece that protects a key square near it’s King. Typically, Knights on f6 for Black or f3 for White are key defenders when castling has occurred on the King-side. Take a look at the example below:

In the above example, it’s White to move. The White Queen on e4, backed up or protected by the White Bishop (the Queen’s bodyguard) on d3, would be able to deliver checkmate with Qxh7 if it were not for one huge problem, the Knight on f6 which is guarding h7 (along with the King) while also attacking the White Queen. The beginner would look at Black’s Knight of f6 and his Queen on e4 and think, “I had better move my Queen so the Knight doesn’t capture it!” Our beginner might have glanced at his Rook on f3, then at the Knight on f6, but thought “this goes against the principles of making good trades. I’d be crazy to trade a five point Rook for a Three point Knight!” This is mechanical thinking at it’s worst. Certainly, it wouldn’t be a good trade based solely on the relative value of the pieces. However, the Knight on f6 is standing in the way of White delivering checkmate (as well as attacking the White Queen). The Knight on f6 is a crucial defender of the mating square h7. Therefore, to deliver checkmate, White must remove this defender even though, from a relative piece value point of view, the trade is not advantageous for White. The more experienced player wouldn’t think twice about trading Rook for Knight since doing so removes one critical defender of h7 and subsequently allows checkmate. Remember, beginners have a limited chess knowledge base and will often consider specific game principles as rules rather than principles, which can be bent or broken at times. Let’s return to our example.

White sees that the Knight on f6 is both attacking the White Queen on e4 and defending the h7 pawn, along with the Black King (who is also defending h7). The h7 square has two defenders and two attackers. In order to deliver checkmate on h7, White need to remove one of those defenders, the Black Knight on f6. White therefore plays 1. Rxf6, leaving the Black King as the sole defender of the h7 pawn. Now there are two attackers going after this pawn (h7) and only one defender. It’s important to note that the King isn’t really in any position to defend when there are two or more attackers! Now it’s Black to move. Here, black breaks a principled idea, never capture pawns and pieces unless it helps your game. While White has bent a principle regarding the exchange of material, Black’s bending of our principled idea of never capturing pawns and pieces unless it helps your position will have dire consequences.

The beginner commanding the Black pieces in this example thinks mechanically, grabbing material to come out ahead in this exchange rather than asking the critical question, why would White trade a Rook for a Knight?” He should have visually seen the answer within the position on the chessboard, the answer being “to remove a crucial defender that allows checkmate!” Had Black deduced, by looking at the position careful rather than grabbing material, he might have played 1…g6 (a miserable move to have to make) rather than 1…Bxf6 which leads to White’s second move 2. Qxh7#.

The idea I want you to remember is this: Avoid mechanical thinking. Playing mechanically often means that you mistake game principles for rock solid rules. The numerous and sound principles that guide us towards making good moves during our games can also lead to our downfall. The best chess players in the world know when to employ sound game principles and more importantly, when to bend those principles. Principles are guidelines not rules written in stone. In the case of removing the defender of a key square, especially when doing so leads to checkmate, would you rather stick to the principles or bend them a little and win the game? I thought so! We’ll look at some further examples of removing the defender next week. However, between now and then, let’s have a look at an extremely famous game in which a Queen is traded for a Knight leading to checkmate. Paul Morphy was extremely successful at removing the defender. If there’s any beginner’s topic you’d like to see here, please feel free to email me and I’ll write an article about that topic. Enjoy this classic battle on the chessboard!

Hugh Patterson

US Championship Roundup

For those who haven’t seen this coverage earlier, here’s the last in a great series of videos on the US Championships. This has now taken over from the Russian Championships as the most important national championship in the World. And this is largely due to the trio of giants, Wesley So, Fabiana Caruana and Hikaru Nakamura.

Nigel Davies

Prevention from Castling

If a king is uncastled we all know that we have to open the lines against it, especially those of major pieces. Sometimes your opponents are so friendly that they don’t castle for personal reasons :), but sometimes there are some tough guys who are not so friendly and there you have to demonstrate your skills. Here are two interesting examples with which to check your skills:

Samsonkin against Nakamura in 2009


Q:- In a given position, Black needs just one move to castle. Can you trick Nakamura?
A:- In the game White started to press a follows:

1. f5! e5??

1…Bf6 was a good alternative but everybody makes mistakes! After 1…Bf6 2. Be3 e5 all three results were possible.

2.Ne6!! fxe6 3.Qh5+ g6 4.fxg6 Nf6 5.g7

Nakamura fought for next 11 moves and surrendered.


Steinitz against Bardeleben in 1895

Q:- How could you force Black king to relinquish his right to castle with a series of forced exchanges?
A:- I could do it as follows:

1.Bxd5

If 1.Bxe7 then N6xe7 2. Qb3 and castles

1…Bxd5

If 1…Bxg5 then 2. Bxe6 – fxe6 and d5 is crushing.

2. Nxd5 Qxd5

If 2…Bxe7 then 3. Re1+ Be7 4. Nxe7 – Nxe7 and Qe2 and Black can’t castle.

3.Bxe7 Nxe7 4.Re1 f6 5.Qe2

And Black can’t castle.

Ashvin Chauhan