Category Archives: Articles

Digging Deep

Even when a situation seems hopeless it’s not always so clear. In this game White lost a piece after 29…d4, but the endgame proved to be complicated.

The lesson to be learned is to never give up and always try to find ways to create chances.

Sam Davies

Short and Sweet (2)

In a recent Thames Valley League match my teammate Chris White managed to win a game against an opponent graded 173 in only ten moves.

Here’s how it went.

1. e4 e5
2. Nf3 Nc6
3. Be2

Chris is playing a reverse Philidor, which doesn’t seem the most likely place to find a ten-mover. Still, you never know.

3… Nf6
4. d3 d5
5. Nbd2 dxe4

This seems rather obliging. Bc5 and Be7 are more challenging options.

6. dxe4 Bg4

Again he might have preferred Bc5 here.

7. c3 Bd6
8. h3 Bh5
9. Nh4

Chris wants to put a knight on f5 (a knight on the rim isn’t dim if it’s on its way somewhere else) but he has to calculate this accurately.

9… Nxe4

A familiar tactic, apparently winning a pawn, but Chris has it all worked out.

10. Nxe4

Now Black, to his credit, realised that he was losing a piece and resigned without waiting to be shown:

10… Bxe2

Or 10… Qxh4 11. Nxd6+

11. Qxe2 Qxh4
12. Bg5

And Black’s queen is trapped.

This is a quiescence error. Black thinks the position after Qxh4 is quiescent (there’s nothing immediate happening) but it isn’t. You have to look at all forcing moves before deciding a position is quiescent and stopping your analysis.

This seemed to be a relatively unusual idea, although I’d remembered seeing this game in Chernev’s 1000 Best Short Games of Chess.

I did a quick search on MegaBase 2018 and found several other examples. The game between Roberto Diaz Garcia (2037) and Leandro Jimenez Jimenez (1974) played in the Championship of the Dominican Republic last May, was almost a repeat of Busvine-Birnberg, the only difference being that White had played O-O rather than Nf1.

A few more examples of the same queen trap. This one’s from a very different opening and has happened more than once. 8. dxe5 would have been OK for White.

Even fairly strong players seem to miss this idea.

The final example features a very different setting, but the queen still gets trapped in the same way.

So there are two tactical ideas you might want to learn. If your opponent plays Nh5 you can sometimes win a pawn using a discovered attack: Nxe5 followed by Qxh5. But you must make sure your queen isn’t going to be trapped as a result. The general idea of trapping a queen in this way is also worth remembering.

Richard James

Connect Your Rooks

Rooks are the second most powerful attacker in your army, yet beginners tend to neglect them as if they didn’t exist! Too often, the novice player will leave their Rooks sitting in the corners on their starting squares. A piece on its starting square has little value until it enters the game. A trapped Rook has no value until it gains it’s freedom. We want to activate our Rooks and doing so means getting them out of the corners. We have to get our Rooks into the game. However, getting into the game doesn’t mean that Rooks should be thrust onto the board during the opening. Remember, minor pieces before major pieces. It means that both Rooks should have the freedom to patrol their starting ranks in order to offer protection to pawns and pieces during the opening as well as controlling any open files or half open files, especially the “e” and “d” files.

The idea of coordination between the pawns and pieces is a concept beginners should embrace. While pawns and pieces should be coordinated throughout the entire game, it’s extremely important during the opening phase. Pawns and pieces working together make it much more difficult for your opponent to gain centralized control or build up attacks that subsequently weaken your position. We know that one of the reasons for castling our King is to get one of the Rooks into the game. It’s a mistake to think that the Rook that was just released from the corner thanks to castling is now active. A Rook on f1, after castling King-side, isn’t doing anything during the opening but helping the King guard the f2 pawn. This Rook is almost active. Then there’s the white Rook on a1. He’s usually trapped as well because our astute beginner knows the dangers of bringing your Queen out early and avoid moving her even one rank up. While both of white’s Rooks are close to being active, they haven’t reached their full opening potential. How do they reach that full potential?

We know that castling gets one Rook out of the corner. However, there’s a second Rook that needs greater access to his starting rank. We know to develop our minor pieces, which gives the Rook access to those squares vacated by the Knights and Bishops. However, there’s the Queen to deal with. The Queen is on her starting square at the beginning of the opening. She stands between one Rook and the other (after castling). To provide freedom for the trapped Rook, we have to move the Queen. Wait a minute, didn’t I say moving the Queen was a bad idea during the opening in previous articles? Actually, I said bringing the Queen our early (towards the center of the board) was a bad idea. Moving the Queen up one rank, either from the first to second rank for white or from the eighth to seventh rank for black, is called for. You’re not bringing your Queen out early, only providing additional mobility for both Rooks. This is called connecting the Rooks and generally serves as the final step of your opening. Take a look at the diagram below.

Whose Rooks have greater mobility or freedom of movement? Knowing what you now do about the power Rooks have when they have an open rank to operate on, the answer should be clear. White’s minor pieces have developed and are no longer occupying their starting squares. White has castled King-side, freeing the trapped h1 Rook and moved the Queen up a rank to d2 which frees the a1 Rook. The white Rooks can now go back and forth along the first rank and lend support where needed. In addition to supporting pawns and pieces throughout the game, Rooks have another important job during the opening.

Take a look at black’s position. Both of black’s Rooks are trapped. Black’s King-side Rook can get into the game when black castles on that side of the board. However, the Queen-side Rook on a8 is going to have to wait until, the Knight, Bishop and Queen move in order to become active. This brings us back to white’s Rooks. If it’s white to move, either the a1 or f1 Rook can move to e1 and check the black King. Since you cannot castle to get out of check, black will have to block the check by moving the c8 Bishop to e6, pinning the Bishop to the King. Rooks have great power of open or half open files.

An open file is one that has no pawns or pieces on it. When a Rook controls an open file, enemy pawns and pieces have to be very careful to avoid moving onto unprotected squares along that file. If they do, the Rook would be able to capture them. A half open file is one that is partially open. Take a look at the diagram below.

Here, the white Rook on e1 controls the open “e” file while the black Rook on b8 controls the half open “b” file. Because white’s Rook controls the “e” file, black cannot move his Rook to e8, otherwise, white’s Rook would capture it and checkmate the black King. Had Black been able to control the “e” file first, white’s Rook would not be able to move to e1 for the same reason. This is why it’s extremely important to gain control of open files before your opponent does. Let’s look at the black Rook. The black Rook is controlling the half open “b” file. The Rook is also attacking the undefended b3 pawn. Should black’s Rook capture this pawn? Absolutely not! If black plays Rxb2, then white plays Re8# (checkmate). Again, always try to take control of open files. Rooks serve many purposes throughout the entire game, especially the endgame. For now, get your Rooks out of the corners and connect them for better opening play. No game to enjoy this week because next week there will be a really long one!

Hugh Patterson

The Karpovian Style

The Karpovian style is often regarded as being dry chess. But many, including me, find it very exciting. Magnus Carlsen’s playing style is similar to Karpov’s apart from testing super grandmasters in very even positions! Here are some of Karpov’s most instructive games which can take your game to the next level:

Karpov vs Kasparov 1985, Wordl Chess Championship
This is one of the best games when you talk about art of maneuvering & one of very few occasions when you find Kasparov in such a helpless situation. In this game Kasparov had full control over the only open file (the c-file) but failed to find any entry square on which to penetrate:


Karpov vs Topalov, 1994
Karpov is known for his dry & positional chess, but this is perhaps the best discovery combination! Starting from move number 30:

Karpov vs Lautier, 1992
This is one of my favourites. In this game, Black’s light square bishop was never able to contribute anything to his majesty. Black lost without making any obvious mistake.

Ashvin Chauhan

Sacrificing the Exchange

Here’s a game I went through with my Dad which featured a win by Nigel Short in the Closed Sicilian. His exchange sacrifice with 17.Rxc6 was very good, he got both of Black’s central pawns with 18.Nxe5 and then 19.Nxd4 and then managed to shut down Black’s counterplay:

Sam Davies

First Things First

The other week I was talking to a boy at Richmond Junior Club. He’s an older boy, in his first year at a highly regarded selective secondary school, but is fairly new to chess and has only recently moved up from the Novices Group.

I’d just looked through a game in which he’d lost most of his pieces and resigned in about a dozen moves. I then played a game with him, helping him a bit. He made a lot of highly intelligent and knowledgeable comments about positional chess, but the idea that you should be very careful not to lose your pieces and check that your intended move is safe before playing it seemed new to him.

The following week I was playing a boy who was new to the club. He was beating everyone at his primary school club and, quite rightly, wanted something more challenging. We played a game and eventually reached a position where I (with black) had an extra pawn, a big pawn centre and two bishops pointing at his castled king against two knights. He told me that he wasn’t going to move his knight from g3 because it would allow a two bishop sacrifice. There was one problem with this: we’d exchanged queens so there was no way I’d be able to mate him after giving up both my bishops.

How often do double bishop sacrifices occur, anyway? Round about once in 20,000 games, at a rough guess. As Dan Heisman would say, studying this won’t give you a lot of bang for your bucks. It’s important to know about the idea, but more because it’s part of chess culture than because it’s of very much practical use.

I spoke to the same boy again the following week. I explained that sacrifices happen very rarely in real life. When I told him this I could see his face fall a million miles. In 1542 games on my personal database I can recall winning only one game by a (very obvious) queen sacrifice and one game by a Greek Gift sacrifice (which was so strong it caused immediate resignation). I can’t, off the top of my head, recall losing any games in this way. He told me he’d won a game with the two bishop sacrifice himself, which I don’t believe. It was more likely a two bishop blunder. Children who only watch videos about sacrifices often think that ‘sacrifice’ is just another word for losing a piece, and, if they accidentally leave their queen en prise they’ll describe it as a sacrifice.

Another boy who was watching quoted something from a video about Mikhail Tal throwing all his pieces away. Well, yes, sometimes, but only in a small proportion of his games. But a) he was a risk taker by nature b) he had enough experience to know whether or not he had practical or theoretical compensation for the lost material and c) he was a genius. A third boy then, inevitably, mentioned the Fishing Pole Trap. To be fair we were looking at the Exchange Lopez variation with 5… Bg4 6. h3 h5 at the time, and they all got the idea that, while the Fishing Pole was just a trap, this was a much better way of using the same idea.

I see this over and over again: kids who have watched videos about, or perhaps been taught about relatively advanced (and sometimes relatively unimportant) concepts before they’ve grasped the fundamental point of chess: that (other things being equal) SUPERIOR FORCE (usually) WINS.

If you continually watch videos about sacrificial attacks without knowing how to win with an extra pawn, let alone with an extra piece, you’ll end up very confused about chess. Kids will often tell me that pawns don’t matter, or even that it doesn’t matter if you lose a bishop or a knight because you can’t get checkmate with just a minor piece against a king. They have neither the experience or the cognitive maturity to prioritise or contextualise the information they’ve learnt. In books and videos, of course, sacrifices always win, which is why we show them, but in real life we probably reject about three quarters of the sacrifices we consider because they seem to be unsound.

Likewise I frequently meet children who have watched videos about openings which are either not very good or too advanced for them. (“My dad’s got this brilliant new opening. It wins every time. It’s called the Latvian Gambit!”) This is one of the problems with internet chess instruction. Firstly, there’s a lot of bad information out there. Secondly, even if you’re using a reputable website you might get confused if you watch videos explaining difficult topics before you’ve mastered simple topics.

My belief is that chess tuition, especially for younger children, should be structured in a logical way. You learn a simple topic, master it through practice, and only then move onto the next topic. Of course there’s no reason why you shouldn’t be working on different topics relating to different aspects of the game in parallel. Of course we want to demonstrate brilliant sacrifices from time to time (and you’ll find lots of them in Checkmates for Heroes and Chess Tactics for Heroes) but the concept of the sacrifice needs to be explained correctly and put into context. We also need to teach them how to win endings when they’re a pawn ahead. We also need to teach them how to put pieces onto good squares to make tactics more likely. You’ll recall Spielmann said something to the effect that he understood Alekhine’s sacrifices well enough, but not how he reached positions where he could play them.

I quoted Dan Heisman a couple of weeks ago. I’ll do so again, in case you missed it.

“In math it would be obvious that you want to learn to multiply before doing geometry or trigonometry. But in chess so many worry about subtle things before mastering important basics like how to consistently make safe moves, or avoiding trades when behind material.”

This is one reason why I’d like to see a proper structured national or international chess course which ensures that students learn these important basics before moving on to harder topics.

Richard James

Always Fight for the Center

The three most important tasks we must accomplish during the opening are developing a central pawn, activating our minor pieces (Knights and Bishops) centrally and castling. We know not to make too many pawn moves, move the same piece twice nor bring our Queen out early (all during the opening). The astute beginner who embraces these principles will immediately start playing better chess. However, there’s more work to do during the opening including fighting for the center of the board. “Always fight for the center” should be our mantra all the way into the middle-game. The player who controls the center first, exercising greater control of its immediate and surrounding squares will have greater options going forward. However, what happens when both players have equal central control? When both players share in control of the center, the player who fights for greater control comes out ahead. Take a look at the diagram below.

After 1. e4…e5, 2. Nf3…Nc6, 3. Bc4…Bc5, 4. c3…Nf6, we reach the position above. Black’s Knight on f6 is threatening the white e4 pawn. Do we defend it with 5. d3 or do we attack black’s center with 5. d4? During the opening, we want to develop our pawns and pieces towards the center of the board but we also want to further attack the center, especially if doing so prevents our opponent from gaining a stronger position. Although black is making a threat against the e4 pawn, the position is still relatively balanced. The threat to the e4 pawn by black’s f6 Knight can be problematic for black if white decides to castle on move five (5. O-O). Should black then play 5…Nxe4, white can play 6. Re1 and the Knight must retreat. To capture the pawn on e4 and retreat would mean that black moved the Knight three times, something principled play tells us not to do during the opening!

The problem with 5. d3 is that it’s a passive move. Since white is a turn ahead of black due to making the first move, the player commanding the white army should always aim for more aggressive moves, provided those moves follow the opening principles. Don’t play defensively unless you absolutely have to! Therefore, 5. d4 attacks the center, stopping black from gaining further control. After 5. d4…exd4, 6. O-O…O-O, white is slightly better. After 7. cxd4…Be7, white is definitely better. Why? Because white fought for the center rather than playing defensively.

Of course, there will be times when you have to make defensive moves. After all, your opponent might make a move you weren’t prepared for. However, if you have the opportunity to do so, always fight for the center. Let’s look at the position after move seven.

White has established a classical pawn center with pawns on d4 and e4. What’s so great about these two pawns? Since pawns have the lowest relative value, either of the two white pawns can move one square forward and chase either black Knight off of it’s optimal opening square (c6 or f6). This is a good example of how principles are bent (not broken). Principled play tells us we shouldn’t move the same piece (or pawn) multiple times during the opening. However, bending this principle would force one of black’s Knights off of an active square, causing a weakening of black’s central control.

White’s b1 Knight can still develop to c3, while the c1 Bishop has mobility along the c1-h6 diagonal. Black’s Queen-side counterpart, the c8 Bishop is completely blocked in. Black’s position is somewhat weak while white’s is strong. This came about by white fighting for the center. How did white know that 5. d4 would work? Let me introduce you to a concept called board vision.

Board Vision

Board vision is the ability to see all the pawns and pieces, both yours and your opponents, on the chessboard. Seeing all the pawns and pieces means first looking at each of your opponent’s pawns and pieces and determining if there are any threats being made against your pawns and pieces. Then look at your pawns and pieces and see if you can make any threats against your opponent’s pawns and pieces. Only after you’ve exercised good board vision, can you then think about possible moves. Beginners tend to look only where the action is. During the opening, they’ll only look at the pawns and pieces closest to the center squares. They miss a potential attacker outside their immediate line of site. Experienced players examine the entire board before considering any moves.

With 5. d4, white challenged black’s control of the center but only after examining the entire board. After carefully looking at the pawns and pieces belonging to both players, white was able to create an attack and subsequent series of moves that allowed the position to favor white. Even though the majority of the pawns and pieces for both sides were still on their starting squares, white still double checked to make sure it was safe to execute his plan. Always fight for the center during the opening.

Piece Activity

Just because you’ve followed the big three opening principles and acquired a good centralized position, doesn’t mean you can’t further develop or activate your pawns and pieces. Always remember that the person your playing has a plan of their own. That plan can sometimes force you to develop a minor piece to a square that isn’t active. When a piece is active, it’s on a square that allows it to have more control of specific squares, such as the board’s central squares. Before claiming you’re finished with your opening, look at your pieces as see if they can move to more active squares. The principle regarding not moving the same piece multiple times during the opening can be bent (not broken) to increase a piece’s activity during the opening. However, you should only do so after you’ve initially developed your other pieces. The same holds true for pawns. After you’ve completed your opening development, you can consider making a few additional pawn moves if they serve a purpose. Often, a player will move the white h2 pawn to h3 to stop the black c8 Bishop from moving to g4 and pinning the white Knight on f3 to the white Queen (d1). Non centralized pawns can also be used to keep your opponent’s pieces off of key squares on your side of the board. The key here is control the center with a pawn or two and only later in the opening make additional pawn moves. As for the Queen, she should only move one square forward in order to connect our Rooks. Fear not, this isn’t bringing your Queen out early! Make sure that your Rooks have the freedom to move back and forth along their starting rank. Rooks trapped in the corners of the board are not in the game. While you don’t want to bring a Rook out onto the board during the opening, they can certainly help to control central squares by being posted on the e and d files. They can also support pawns being pushed towards the enemy. Play for control by fighting for the center. Better to be an attacker than a defender and fighting for the center makes you the aggressor. Here’s a game to enjoy until next week.

Hugh Patterson

Basic Ideas & Strategy : The Benko Gambit

I’m not a big fan of gambits in general but the Benko Gambit is one of a few that I do like. Black is not aiming for an immediate attack for his sacrificed pawn but rather long term positional pressure against White’s queen side. Here are some brief guidelines on how to play Black:

1. Black gets long term initiative on “a” & “b” files by placing rooks on those files, especially against pawn on b2.

2. Black’s bishop on g7 adds more pressure to the queenside by striking down the h8-a1 diagonal.

3. At the same time Black’s kingside pawn structure is very solid.

Here is a typical Benko Gambit game in which the mighty Mikhail Gurevich is beaten by Sang Cao:

4. One other plan to note is that when the light square bishops are exchanged a Black knight can reach d3 or c4 via g4-e5-d3 (c4) or d7-e5-d3, which is a typical plan in Benko gambit.

Here is the game featuring this theme between Evgeny Bareev and Garry Kasparov at Linares in 1994. As with the previous game it featured a classical time control:

5. Black has two important levers in …f7-f5 & …e7-e6, which can help break up White’s centre and even lead to an attack on White’s king.

Here is an example of this from a game played between Gelfand and Carlsen in 2011, this time with a rapid time control:

One word of warning: If White can achieve the e4-e5 lever, he would be having nice prospects in the center & the kingside, so always be vigilant.

The Benko Gambit is relatively easy to play for beginners & intermediate players because of the limited number of plans, and even help you to understand the positional play. So I heartily recommend it.

Ashvin Chauhan

Grinding Out A Win

Here’s a game of mine from this last weekend in which I managed to grind out a win in what looked like an even endgame. I was helped by my opponent’s shortage of time but I had a slight edge later in the game that was enough encouragement to keep going.

Sam Davies