You can find lots of material in books which teaches you how to attack the king. However, there are also some key factors I’d like to present, which my own experience has led me to believe are the most important.
1. Removal of key defender: In my city a very popular saying is that you should ‘kill a knight on the castled side you win’. At club level they follow this technique blindly and surprisingly are successful most of the time. Study the classic bishop sacrifice on h2 or h7; most of the time you will find absence of the knight on f3 or f6.
2. Rook Lift: A rook lift can be a very effective weapon. Normally rooks only take part at a later stage of the game, but through the rook lift an extra and important attacker. Here is an example;
3. Open lines: Open lines are important for empowering your pieces compare to your opponent’s. In order to open lines two elements should be examined closely. One is the available pawn levers and another is a sacrifice to access the enemy king. Here is one of the best games of Bobby Fischer which is relevant to our topic:
4. Attention levels: One should always consider the counter blows, escape squares, defensive resources and tension in the center before going in for the kill.