The position below was taken from the game of Tarrasch against Berger, played in 1889:
White to move
At first glance it looks as if it is winning for white as you can play Rxd4, winning a piece.
First raw thought:
Rxd4 – cxd4
Qxc8 – Qxc8
Ne7+ and White wins a piece,
Normally a beginner, with some combinative knowledge, will instantly play this given combination and ended up in losing (as after Nxc8- d3 wins). The reason is that they don’t care to look at the position that arises after the combination which gives them a material advantage.
Lesson 1: Always try to see another half move ahead before playing a combination. The same thing has been recommended by Jacob Aagaard in his book Grandmaster Preparation: Calculation.
Before executing the combination I must bring my king closer so that I can stop the pawn advance. But then he can defend easily with Ra8 or Rb8 so I must stop here and look for other good moves. But now I see there is a chance to gain a tempo with:
Rxd4 – cxd4
Ne7+ (Changing the move order) – Qxe7
Qxc8+ – Qf8 and Qxf8 and gaining a tempo.
Lesson 2: Don’t give up in between.
I don’t get any material advantage then. Yet looking another half move ahead (lesson 1) I see that I now have a winning endgame position because the d4 pawn will fall soon and I can create outside passer on queen side.
Lesson 3: In the endgame a tiny advantage can be decisive and whatever combination you play must consider resulting endgames.
This position and the associated thought process shows that every position teaches you something. Progress is dependent on how much you learn and capitalise on it in future games.
Normally, I use books which advocate a step by step method in order to teach kids, but every kid is different and you can’t apply the same method to all of them. One day I came across the following sentence when I was reading Chess Fundamentals.
“The first thing a student should do, is to familiarize himself with the power of the pieces. This can best be done by learning how to accomplish quickly some of the simple mates.” Capablanca
So why can’t we do just this while teaching tactics to kids? I didn’t see why not and came to the conclusion that the mates in two from Laszlo Polgar’s 5334 Problems, Combination and Games was the best source of material for teaching kids tactics and mating patterns, and without using any jargon! There is also no need to find problem sets for different tactical motifs. One of my students did around 1600 mates in two and was then able to find tactical possibility without learning particular tactical motifs.
As I gained experience in the field of chess coaching, my belief become stronger and stronger that kids should solve more and more checkmate in one move problems before proceeding further. Here you can use Elementary Checkmates I and II that can be found at ChessOK.
Before writing, I checked for other peoples’ views on how a busy person should prepare? But most of the time they suggest opening repertories which save time. Instead of this I have a different idea that does not involve the effort involved in changing openings, instead putting the focus on managing your existing repertoire more efficiently.
1. Create your own database: You put in tournament games, online games with a decent time control and correspondence games.
2. Select critical positions: Whatever opening systems you play, you can find some middle game positions that occur in your games the most and put them into different categories. For example winning positions, losing ones and those which are difficult to handle or uncertain.
3. Use the computer as playing partner: I am not big fan of using a computer for chess preparation but here you can use computers in more sensible way. First of you can select levels which you want to play against then play your selected positions as black and white in order to grasp the ideas and spot out tactical possibilities.
4. Using the database: Once you have plenty of experience in playing the selected positions, now it’s time to see how the experts play them. You simply search positions using any chess database and can go through the games.
The whole process is nothing but a way working on the selected patterns in more organised way.
While teaching how pieces move, the most difficult to explain and understand is the knight. This is because other pieces move in in straight lines and the knight is the only piece which can jump. Kids can usually grasp the point that knight can jump but still find it difficult to understand its movements.
The best way to teach anything is to keep it simple, interesting and if possible make it funny (a kind of trigger) so that kids can easily remember it. Here is one interesting and funny method. The founder of this method is one of my chess friends (Mr. Rushang) who is a chess coach and also a very creative person. Nowadays I am using this method very effectively and enjoy doing so.
Normally we have tiles on the floor. Then we ask one of the kids to come up and ask him or her to stand on any tile they like with their legs together and then jump two steps, one by one, still with their legs together. Once he or she has completed the second jump, we ask him or her to spread their legs to show where the knight came from and where it is now. Believe me, the is very funny and effective way to teach kids knight moves. Parents even told me that after my departure the kids would continue to play this game.
If you would like to use this method on a board then you can do it with two fingers together and the same process outlined above. But it is not as funny!
Teaching should not be stereotyped, you have to make it interesting.
You might have heard that Carlsen can remember numbers of positions and recall them over the board in a limited amount of time. In the book GM-RAM, by Rashid Ziatdinov, the author emphasises remembering key positions and games and claims that “if you know just one of important classical games, you will be able to become a 1400 level player, to be world champion you will need to know 1,000 such games”. This may be too much but we can’t deny fact that remembering these games cold will definitely help you towards chess improvement.
I tried different ways to remember games, for example playing them over the board many times, guessing them move by move, using Chess Position Trainer etc. But they didn’t work that well for me.
Then I tried one more thing and succeeded. This method uses lots of time but definitely works; after a month without playing them through a second time I am able to remember the games and their critical positions.
The way to do this is to take a book of your favourite player where he has annotated his games. Now we are going to annotate his games in our words rather than going through author’s annotations first. You can use different software but a pen and paper works best for me.
The most important thing is that your focus must be on one direction but with inherent flexibility (if your opponent blunders you must be able to punish him). This tends to be missing from the play of amateur play as they fight in different directions. Write down your ideas for each move (for both White and Black) and don’t worry if you repeat the same thing over a series of moves. Once you finish it (normally I take 4 to 6 hours) go to the experts annotations and compare. You will find that now it is very easy to understand the author’s points and your mistakes, this wouldn’t have happened if you went directly to the author’s annotations .
It is also wise to go for a second opinion also, if someone has explained the same game. Players who have the time and work like hell will definitely get benefit from this!
If you find this is very hard and time consuming, first watch this video:
You can find lots of material in books which teaches you how to attack the king. However, there are also some key factors I’d like to present, which my own experience has led me to believe are the most important.
1. Removal of key defender: In my city a very popular saying is that you should ‘kill a knight on the castled side you win’. At club level they follow this technique blindly and surprisingly are successful most of the time. Study the classic bishop sacrifice on h2 or h7; most of the time you will find absence of the knight on f3 or f6.
2. Rook Lift: A rook lift can be a very effective weapon. Normally rooks only take part at a later stage of the game, but through the rook lift an extra and important attacker. Here is an example;
3. Open lines: Open lines are important for empowering your pieces compare to your opponent’s. In order to open lines two elements should be examined closely. One is the available pawn levers and another is a sacrifice to access the enemy king. Here is one of the best games of Bobby Fischer which is relevant to our topic:
4. Attention levels: One should always consider the counter blows, escape squares, defensive resources and tension in the center before going in for the kill.
Kids play chess for fun, but we all know that some seriousness is required for them to learn and improve. If you successfully build a motivational environment it can have an enormous effect on their chess development. Here are a few ideas you can use:
Kids love stars and trophies: In each and every session I usually come up with 2 to 3 puzzles with a star value, meaning that if the student solves those puzzles, he or she will get a star or trophy on his or her notebook. Believe me this is very nice trick to get kids involved. I got this idea from one of my student’s mothers. She told me that in schools teachers do the same if the child does good work.
Tournaments on a regular basis and a rating ladder foster a competitive attitude: One of my friends who has more than 10 year experience coaching kids has applied this technique with very promising results. We arrange tournaments on a weekly basis and based on their performance we decide where everyone ranks. If you want to improve your rank in ladder you can only challenge your immediate rival for example if your rank is 3rd then you can only challenge to 2rd rank and receive the challenge from the 4th player. Results will change their positions and the ladder keeps changing. This can also work with team events.
Points system: You can set some points for each right answer and at the end of the day the child with most points will be the winner and get a standing obsession.
Offer the chance to play with coach: It’s like dinner with a celebrity if you get a lucky draw.
Celebrate any success together: This helps the kids in your class bond with each other, despite the fact they’re competing with oneanother.
In business a partnership can bring more mutual benefits compared to being a sole proprietor. In chess too, if you work together with understanding, you can improve efficiently and effectively. But there are a few points which you should consider before working with someone.
First and foremost the partners should be of about equal strength. They should also be very serious about their chess careers, casual players should not be welcome.
You can work together on any phase of the game but what’s important is where to focus. What I have learned from experience that it would be much better if you focus on soft reasoning and ideas rather than finding or guessing good moves and concrete variations. For example take a look at the following position:
White can win by playing any pawn move except a4, but for me the important thing is why White is winning with material balance on the board. The reasons are as follows:
– Ability to create a passed pawn
– Position of both kings
– Pawn crippling
Based on this you can find good moves, and it’s merely a matter of time. So focus on soft reasoning and ideas rather than calculating variations.
Keep your ego aside: This is a common problem among chess players who are working together or discussing any position. They want to prove they are right at any cost after which healthy discussion becomes debate (and this sometimes happens between coach and students!). Avoid it by accepting your mistakes.
Knowledge sharing: It is possible to choose different topics, work on them separately and then discuss them together. This can be a real benefit of working together as it saves lots of time and energy, but be honest as it is chess players’ tendency that they don’t want to share or disclose their preparation or knowledge.
Handling a crisis in business and over the chess board are quite different because of external factors, but there are also some unique similarities. Whether it is chess or business, we have to deal with three common elements. These are:
b) Element of surprise those are hidden counter threats
c) Short decision making time
In chess, these elements are sometimes favourable and sometimes not. How you deal with these elements is all about handling crisis. How to handle it? I will try to explain it with the following discussion:
You Must Be Cold Blooded!
By this I mean to say that you should handle the situation calmly in order to recognise all the available resources at your disposal and your opponent’s. If you mix-up emotions you will be nowhere. For example in the following position Nakamura is facing a critical situation as there are so many threats in the air. However he came out of it using the element of surprise, a move which wouldn’t occur to most people. A good annotation has been given on this position in Chessbase’s Megabase.
Changing the Position
Rather than suffering in a difficult position it makes sense to try and change something so as to set your opponent some problems. Creativity is a great asset in such situations.
For example, I once saw a game of Karpov’s where he was unable to save the isolated pawn, so he sacrificed it by playing it on d5 and in return gave his opponent an isolated pawn and saved the game. I tried to find that game but could not.
Keep Away From Mess
This mainly concerns time trouble, and it stands to reason we can avoid a crisis if we don’t complicate when in time trouble or get into time trouble in complex positions.
Once a student is familiar with piece movements, attacks, check and checkmate, my next topic is to teach him or her elementary mates. This was explained by Capablanca in his book Chess Fundamentals.
“The first thing a student should do, is to familiarise himself with the power of pieces. This can best be done by learning how to accomplish quickly some of the simple mates.”
In my view tactics and endgames should be learned in parallel. For tactics it’s best to proceed step by step to develop tactical skills very gradually and effectively. I have had very good results with that. But for the endgame I referred to many books before finally choosing ‘GM RAM’. This seems very strange at first as there are just 256 dry positions to work out without even knowing who is to move! But once you go though the you realise that the first 58 endgame positions are really essential. I realised that 70% or more of my endgame knowledge is based around those 58 positions, and these cover the following topics:
– Key Square
– Rule of Square
– Pawn breakthrough
– Essential Rook ending (Philidor and Lucena)
– Queen vs. Rook endgame
– Essential Queen endgames
These elements are all vital for practical endgame play. And as there is nothing ready-made it can actually actually inspire us to work through them in our own way.
There is a problem when a coach focuses on the endgame. A few of my students see the endgame as boring, insisting that I teach them more and more tactics, but the problem is that they can’t understand that they are not knowledgeable enough to decide what is good for them.
Accordingly I have not changed my way even at the cost of some students going elsewhere for lessons. Quality demands sacrifices.