Like mating patterns and attacking patterns, there are patterns in that endgame which can help you to formulate simple but effective strategies.
1. Material Advantage: A material advantage is an obvious winning advantage in the endgame; a person who has a material advantage can win easily, though one should always investigate the resulting positions in relation to key squares & rule of square.
2. Virtual material advantage: How one should obtain a virtual material advantage? In my view there are two ways to do it.
i) Doubling the opponent’s pawns: Here is an example.
Now following the same example, if Black has a pawn on d7 instead of e6 then the game is equal.
ii) Pawn crippling: Through pawn crippling you can prevent the march of two enemy pawns with yours, which secures you a virtual material advantage. For example:
With White to move he can move his pawn to e4, thereby stopping the advance of Black’s e- and f- file pawns. While with Black to move he should play here f5 in order to save the day.
3. A piece is out of action: If you can force the enemy king to leave the main battle area it can secure the win. For example:
This is win for White with either side to move.
4. Far advanced rook pawns on both wings with opposition: This can be possible because the one who promote the queen first can prevent the enemy pawn to promote into queen by controlling the queening square. Here is an example.
5. Passed pawns: I have noticed that in practice a distance passed pawn is more advantageous than a regular one. However, it becomes much more critical when you are fighting with two scattered pawns against protected passed pawns or connected mobile pawns. So the question arises as to which passed pawn/pawns is/are better? Here I have divided them into the following categories.
i) Usually the protected passed pawn is better than the scattered one, though you can find some exceptions too. For example here White can’t win because the Black king can manage two tasks. (1. It is in the square of white’s passed pawn and 2. It is able to protect his own pawn without any risk):
ii) Scattered passed pawns against two connected mobile pawns: This is more crucial and securing a win depends on king and pawns positions.
a) Usually two scattered distant passed pawns are stronger than the two connected mobile pawns. For example
b) Two connected mobile pawns are better if they are far advanced, along with the king. For example