We see many beginner games in which our novice player launches an attack only to see it fall apart, often leaving a weak position in its wake. Yet the experienced player will launch an attack and the results will be positive. What’s the difference between attacks? Knowing when to launch an attack by taking advantage of the situation, which is usually a weak opposition position. This means you have to look at your opponent’s position and attack only when you can take advantage of it!
Beginner’s tend to launch two kinds of attacks. The first attack usually involves a couple of pieces working independently of one another. In other words, those pieces are not working as a team. To work as a team, pieces have to support one another or protect one another when launching any attack. We often see early checkmates in the games of junior players that use a Queen and Bishop (Scholar’s Mate) or a Queen and Knight. These mating attacks work because the Bishop or Knight supports (protects) the Queen. The pieces work with one another through coordination. The minor piece protects the Queen which keeps the opponent’s King from capturing the her when the attack is launched. Notice the minor piece supporting the major piece, the Queen. Because the Queen can attack along the ranks, files and diagonals, she is the piece best suited to attacking the opposition King because she can cut off any escape squares
Imagine now, the the Knight or Bishop previously mentioned isn’t positioned to protect the Queen and her majesty goes in for the attack. The opposition King would then capture her and you’d be down your most powerful attacking piece. Piece coordination is therefore critical to any successful attack.
The other beginner’s attack is what I call the kitchen sink attack in which everything is thrown at the opposition King. This sounds great in theory but if our beginner doesn’t have his or her pieces protecting one another (piece coordination), then material will be lost and their position ruined. As a chess teacher, I teach the idea that the more pieces you have attacking the opposition, the better your chances of a successful attack. However, I point out that those pieces must be coordinated, otherwise you’ll lose material. I repeat this point over and over because beginning students will hear “the more pieces you have attacking the opposition King, the faster you’ll checkmate that King,” missing the key point regarding piece coordination. The beginning student will often throw their entire army at the opposition King and watch in horror as their army is captured. So how does the beginner launch a successful attack?
The first idea any beginner should embrace is patience. Junior players tend to be very impatient, only wanting to make moves that do something spectacular, such as capturing a piece or checking the opposition’s King. Beginners want to win and win fast. While beginner’s games tend to be short and fast, when playing other beginners, there will come a time when they’re playing strong players who can easily repel impatient attacks and usually turn the position around in their favor. Patient is a necessary skill all chess players must develop if they want to improve! Being patients means slowing building up your attack rather than launching a slap dash guaranteed to fail fiasco.
Of course, simply being patient isn’t enough to win the game. You have to be doing something while being patient, namely developing your pieces to their most active squares when preparing for your attack. The idea here is that the more material you have on active squares, those around the board’s center during the opening or those that give you attacking lines when preparing to attack your opponent’s King, the more attacking options you have and the fewer defensive choices your opponent has. The player will greater options has greater control of the board and the game!
Active squares in the opening are fairly straight forward. They’re squares that control the board’s center. However, when preparing a middle-game attack on the opposition’s position you have to develop material to specific squares. In the case of a mating attack, those squares will be those nearest the opposition King. However, you often have to do some additional work before attacking the King. Where do you move pawns and pieces then?
During the middle-game, you want to exploit weaknesses in your opponent’s position. Weakness include, doubled and isolated pawns, undefended pieces, pieces trapped on their starting ranks, defenders of squares that, if those pieces weren’t there, would give you an open line (rank, file or diagonal) to the enemy King or weak squares themselves. Of course, beginners will always try to look for tactical plays such as forks, pins, skewers, etc. However, you often are deprived of any immediate tactical plays so you have to look for weaknesses. The key idea here is to take advantage of opposition weaknesses. Often, those weakness create tactical plays.
For example, if your opponent’s pawn structure is plagued with problems such a doubled pawns, isolated pawns and too many pawn islands, your opponent will have to use some of his or her pieces to defend those problem pawns. If you put pressure on those pawns, such as threatening to attack them, your opponent will have to defend them or lose them. I say threat because a threat can be better than simply capturing the material being threatened. The point here is that opposition material becomes tied down when having to defend against attacks on poorly placed pawns and pieces. This means there are fewer opposition pieces able to repel your attack when you launch it because they’re tied down to the defense of their own poorly placed pawns and pieces. Another idea or concept beginners should learn is the notion of removing the defender of a key square. Removing that key defender makes it easier to open attacking and mating lines.
Multiple threats are a benefit from the patient development of your pawns and pieces. If you have multiple threats across the board, your opponent often can only deal with one of those threats leaving you the opportunity to take advantage of the position your opponent has left undefended. Multiple threats also lead to overloaded material, pieces that have to protect multiple pawns and pieces at the same time.
Timing is the key to a good attack. Only attack when the time is right. When is that? When there’s a weakness in your opponent’s position that gives you the opportunity to attack. When you and your opponent make moves, even the the best moves can leave you or your opponent with a weakness, namely the squares you leave behind. In simple terms, a White Knight on f3, controls the g5 and h4 squares so the Black Queen can’t move to these squares without being captured. Let’s say White hasn’t castled his or her King KIng-side and decides to capture an undefended Black pawn on e5 with the f3 Knight. After doing so, White has given up the defense of or left behind two important squares which the Black Queen takes advantage of by, in this case moving to g5. Now White’s Knight is under attack and so is the g2 pawn. While this example brings the Queen out early, something you shouldn’t do, it makes a good point. Black took advantage of a bad move on White’s part, only launching this early attack when the timing was right. Of course, experienced players would never take the pawn in our example, but beginners are know to do such things!
Wait for your opponent to create a weakness in their position before attacking. Even when playing principled chess, there comes a time when you or your opponent will have to make a move that may weaken their position. If you’re paying close attention, you’ll spot it and take advantage of it by either building up an attack or launching into one. Be patient and wait for an opportunity to arise and only then consider an attack after carefully building up your forces. Here’s a game to enjoy until next week. You have to love a guy named Pal Benko.